Biological aspects of beauty

Medieval painters and great masters of the Renaissance represented various revered figures surrounded by roses, lilies, violets, and other flowers, which symbolized chastity, martyrdom, humility, and other Christian attributes.

Until the invention of simple lenses and the compound microscope, the recognition and classification of plants were, for the most part, based on such large morphological aspects of the plant as size, shape, and external structure of leaves, roots, and stems.

By the s, Lewis Henry Morgan — was writing about "the advantages of marriages between unrelated persons" and the necessity of avoiding "the evils of consanguine marriage", avoidance of which would "increase the vigor of the stock".

Biological Sciences

Useful information on the structure of the extremely large cellulose molecule has been provided by X-ray crystallography.

Solitary pollinators in particular get to early season bloom like no other bees. Knowledge of the fine structure of plant cells has enabled investigators to determine the sites of important biochemical activities, especially those involved in the transfer of energy during photosynthesis and respiration.

Vital stains, dyes that can be used on living material, were first used in and have been greatly refined since then. This simple system, though effective, had many imperfections.

Morphology Morphology deals with the structure and form of plants and includes such subdivisions as: The printing press revolutionized the availability of all types of literature, including that of plants. The widespread use of the microscope by plant morphologists provided a turning point in the 18th century—botany became largely a laboratory science.

The invention of the optical lens during the 16th century and the development of the compound microscope about opened an era of rich discovery about plants; prior to that time, all observations by necessity had been made with the unaided eye.

From such studies have arisen further methods and also the subdisciplines of cytotaxonomy, cytogenetics, and population genetics. In general, the plant sociologist has relatively few quantitative factors to measure and must therefore take a subjective and intuitive approach, which, nevertheless, gives extremely useful results and some degree of predictability.

In other words, around the functions of the plant, structure and form have evolved. Nine different ecosystems across North America are examined in detail, with lists and lists of wildflowers and grasses to weave into every orchard ecosystem.

The integration and reporting of such measurements, which cannot be regarded as constant, may therefore conceal some of the most dynamic and significant aspects of the environment and the responses of the plant to them.

Ecology Ecology deals with the mutual relationships and interactions between organisms and their physical environment. Cousin marriage in the Middle East Cousin marriage has been allowed throughout the Middle East for all recorded history.

An investigation of the natural metabolic products of plants requires, in general, certain standard biochemical techniques—e. Marcus Aurelius also married his maternal first cousin Faustina the Youngerand they had 13 children.

Physiology Physiology deals with the functions of plants. In Nicolas de Saussure demonstrated convincingly that plants in sunlight absorb water and carbon dioxide and increase in weight, as had been reported by Hales nearly a century earlier.JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.

The Holistic Orchard Growing Tree Fruits and Berries the Biological Way Michael Phillips $ Many people want to grow fruit but lack the insight to be successful orchardists.

Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins (i.e.

Books for the Orchard Enthusiast

people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors). Opinions and practice vary widely across the world. In some cultures and communities, cousin marriage is considered ideal and actively encouraged; in others, it is subject to social some countries, this.

Natural Family Planning Program ♦ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ Fourth St., NE ♦ Washington, DC ♦ / ♦ [email protected] Excerpted from JAMA Book and Media Reviews dated August 12, by Scott R.

Lillibridge, MD, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M Science Center College Station " The US Army Medical Department's Textbooks of Military Medicine series has just released a new volume, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare.

Natural Family Planning Program ♦ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ♦ Fourth St., NE ♦ Washington, DC ♦ / ♦ [email protected]

Biological aspects of beauty
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